Love !!!!!!!! Dynamic with time……………….

Love !!!!!!!! Dynamic with time’



Memories, always past …. But recollected in present but their flow never erased from cranium, some how they strike the brain hemisphere. Such past stumble with incidence which we face in day to day life.

Human body is not only carcass of muscle , nerves ,blood tissues . A complete package is formed when whole body is adjoined with beautiful sprit. Spirit is always pure and divine. It is gift of god. Every human is lucky that they are adorned by spirit. Before birth man is unknown about eternal life how it is? Old people say that , at the time of birth we also get date of death.

source: google

source: google

So this life is dynamic. Every seconds changes occur biologically, spiritually, chemically with change in behavior, thoughts, actions in human as change is inevitable process. Though god   gift us life, he has made nice coordination of mind, soul and body. All our feelings are   captured or controlled by these set of components. People life is exalted by gifts of adorable feelings of love, belief, trust, harmony, anger, hate, jealous which made life of human complete boon. One of the truth behavior of human being is that they always zeal to listen their praiseworthy words. They   like listen positive phonics. All are admired   or gloss with affectionate and lovely behavior. Why does they show such common behavior ? Is anyone can answer ? It is because of only the   effect of four lucky words I mean LOVE.   Love induce care in which people seeks for his whole life. At early we all creature   get abundant love and care from mother “our live god”. God has send us in earth with mother ‘s warm lap and poise milk who give full responsibility to the mother to have intense care in his absence. Love   from parents, sibling, friends neighbor even from life partner overwhelms all the up and down situation of life. The   waves of love arise from the soul and reveals out from beat of heart. When the feeling of love breaks at a point of life then it may rise the selfishness, hatemonger, debate, corruption, misbehavior etc.

Time never waits and change is inevitable so life goes on in its steady. Life goes through many twist and sometimes unexpected U- turn takes place .   Our life suffers with different phases. The most critical phase “TEEN AGE” where emotions are uncontrollable. Here X &Y factor starts to go in its job. Guy starts to wink and girls starts to show her shyness, sweet words and smile upon guys where infatuation starts .Such abstract instinct with madness in heart and imparts wonderful feeling which arise term CRUSH “a sweet emotion” may be bitter……hehe.

source: google

source: google

source : Google

source : Google

It can empower psychological behavior, attitudes somehow at point of maturity and takes in different world which is real but far from reality. Pure and unconditional feeling symbolizes the divine LOVE. No one is careful about the society, caste, status, interest….. Eyes become open blind, environment get enchantered without flowers , blushing air, nervousness. We only wondered!!!!makes us day dreamer. As this phase passes our shoulder seeks responsibility so,life get in process of metamorphosized. We start to seek our life in reality not in dream and imagination. Lots of challenges , challenges, circumstances, personal interest starts to get victory but heart still wants true,pure and supportive love. Essence of responsibility being youth makes us practical for taking decisions in life. So love remains immortal ,everlasting with full of faith, honesty,care,respect and understanding…………………………………

Thank you !!!!!!                                                             ——- SAPANA GHIMIRE

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Impact of Vaccination awareness to the epidemiological situation of Rabies and Canine Parvo in Chitwan district

                          Sapana Ghimire , B.V.Sc & A.H  8th sem,IAAS                                 


The viral infection in the canine has cause devastating loss in canine population. The epidemiological study conducted by Central Veterinary Epidemiology Center has reported endemic situation of Rabies and Canine Parvo. Rabies is 100% fatal and 100% preventive zoonotic disease of warm blooded animals transmitted via bite of rabid animals. Canine parvo is highly contagious disease which cause severe enteritis and bloody diarrhea mostly in young dogs. With the objective to study impact of vaccination awareness to the epidemiological situation of Rabies and Canine Parvo in Chitwan a simple situational analysis of programs directed for vaccination awareness along with recorded secondary data was evaluated. Programs regarding vaccination awareness are conducted by allied organizations DLSO(District Livestock Service Office) Chitwan, HART, NVSA and active participation of academic students of IAAS (Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science).To figure out the epidemiological condition of these disease secondary data from DLSO Chitwan (f/y 2069/2070, 2070/2071, 2071/2072) as well as from HART was reviewed. We observe the positive impact in dog owner for vaccination. Rabies which used to be endemic in before years is also in same pattern but Parvo seems somehow epidemic in seasonal form mostly during ( Chitra- Baisakh).

Key words:   Vaccination awareness, rabies, canine parvo, zoonotic, epidemic

  • Introduction

Epidemiology is the study of distribution and determinants of health related events in specified population and the application of this study to control health problems.(WHO ).Vaccination is determinant factor which can affect disease frequency . It is best preventive technique to control contagious viral disease.

RABIES : It is fatal viral disease of warm blooded animal .Transmitted by bite of rabid animals. It is caused by Lyssa virus (ssRNA of Rhabdoviridae family) . This virus is neurotropic .

Canine parvo : It is highly contagious viral disease which affects especially young dogs . It causes severe enteritis and myocarditis and caused by ssDNA canine parvo virus (CPV),

  1. Background of Rabies
  • 100% fatal and 100% preventive zoonotic disease of warm blooded animals
  • 45% of global burden of human rabies in SAARC. (21000-24000 out of 55000 death worldwide)
  • Each year above 4 million people receive anti rabies vaccination (WHO, 2012
  • In Nepal 200 animals death and occur per year ( veterinary epidemiology center)

3. Condition of Rabies in Nepal source : Veterinary epidemiological Unit

Year No of animal infected No of animal died Total animal vaccinated
2008 222 222 8012
2009 200 200 8000
2010 196 196 8005
2011 187 187 9000
2012 180 180 10000
2013 249 249 11000



Status of animal rabies in the fiscal year 2070/71 in Nepal

  • Cattle: 57
  • Buffalo: 35
  • Goat: 96
  • Dog: 56
  • pig :5

4.Method of study:

The yearly epidemiological reports, i.e secondary data of DLSO,HART from Fiscal year 2069/2070,2070/2071,2071/2072 were analyzed by descriptive study to have an overview of Rabies and Canine Parvo virus infection in Chitwan district.

    1. Year wise trend of animal rabies and canine parvo case
    2. Species wise trend of animal rabies case
    3. Year wise trend of no of animal vaccinated against Rabies and Canine parvo

    5.Results and Discussion :The analysis of Secondary data collected from DLSO Chitwan and HART was done through different graphical representation which are given below.

    1. A) Year wise trend of no. of animals vaccinated in DLSO Chitwan
    Year (f/y) Rabies vaccine DHPPiL                 
    2069/2070 391 25
    2070/2071 450 92
    2071/2072 520 102


    Rabies& DHPPiL

    Rabies& DHPPiL

  • Fig No 1 shows the number of vaccination done against Rabies and Canine Parvo in three consecutive f/y . Among these three years number of vaccination against Rabies is highest in 2071/2072 which is 520 and vaccination against canine parvo is highest in 2070/2071 which is 92
  • This results shows the increase in awareness level in public towards vaccination against these viral disease.
  • B.Year wise trend of Rabies vaccination   by HART
  • Rabies vaccination

    Rabies vaccination

  • Fig no 2 shows the vaccination trend of HART in these three consecutive f/y.
  • HART is being popular among public year after year as it’s works are centered in the control of rabies through vaccination against rabies along with castration and spaying.
  • It vaccinates both owner’s dogs as well as stray dogs.

HART vaccinates about 800 animals/year in Chitwan district.

C. Year wise (F/Y) trend of canine parvo case in DLSO chitwan

Parvo cases

Parvo cases

  • Fig 3 shows the number  of canine  parvo  case recorded in DLSO Chitwan. Among these three consecutive f/y , the higher case of canine parvo are recorded in 2070/2071 which is 65
  • According to source more cases are observed in Falgun, Chaitra , Baishakh
  • The cases are somehow found to be less in this f/y 2071/2072 which might be public concern towards this disease.
  • D. Year wise trend of rabies infected case in DLSO Chitwan
    Year (F/y) cattle buffalo goat dog total
    2069/2070 5 2 5 2 14
    2070/2071 4 3   4 11



    • Table No 2 shows the number of animals infected by rabies in these consecutive f/y 2069/2070, 2070/20 71.
    • These cases are reported on the basis of history of dog bite and clinical signs without any laboratory confirmation.
    1. Animal death case due to Rabies in DLSO Chitwan
    Year cattle buffalo goat dog Total
    2071/1072 10 3 1 2 16


    Places of Rabies outbreak in Chitwan in 2071/2072 B.S

    Cattle :   Padampur ( East Chitwan)

    Buffalo :                               Prembasti

    Goat :                         Chhetrapur

    Dog :                             Chainpur

    • Table No 3 shows the actual rabies death case in the f/y 2071/2072 in which total number of case is 16
    • This is reported after complete laboratory diagnosis.Cattle:19Buffalo:8

      E. Species wise distribution of rabies infected case f/y 2069/2070,2070/2071, 2071/2072

    • Cattle:19Buffalo:8

      Goat : 6

      Dog :8

    • species wise case

      species wise case

      • It is clear from fig 4 that the higher number of animal dying from dog bite was cattle which is 19 and it is followed by buffalo and dog which is 8.
      • More number of dogs are vaccinated against Rabies than Canine Parvo


        1Rabies causes zoonotic threats , so more public are concerned for vaccination against rabies.

        1. Many awareness programs with strong collaboration of veterinary, public health and wildlife authorities are focused for Rabies. buffalo shows

        3. Rabies vaccination somehow triggered public to have concern towards other viral diseases of canine. As a result DHPPiL vaccine is available easily in market

      • 7. Limitations of study
        • Only the data from DLSO And HART are studied which is insufficient to figure out epidemiological condition of Rabies and Canine Parvo.
        • Other allied bodies i.e. NGO’s INGO’S , Municipality , private sectors etc have been involved in vaccination programs which we are unable to include in our study.
        • Animals dying after dog bite showing clinical signs have been considered as rabies case due to lack of laboratory confirmation.
        • Many cases which occur in rural areas might have been left out due to problem of under reporting
      • 8.Conclusions
      • Rabies is found endemic in Chitwan district, it occurs in any season or month and can be seen throughout the year.
      • Canine Parvo is seen epidemic mostly in early summer season (Falgun, Chaitra ,Baishakh)
      • Many vaccination awareness programs are being launched in Chitwan district from DLSO level, other allied bodies HART, Wildlife authorities, private sectors, academic sectors.
      • It has been found that public are more aware about the vaccination trend now days. So they vaccinate dogs.
      • Rabies vaccine and DHPPiL are available easily in market.
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Youth role for climate justice!!!!!!!


Youth role for climate justice!!!!!!!




Our life exists in this beautiful planet which is so vague and accommodates  many unicellular to giant  multi cellular creatures, natural boon adorned with big deep blue  oceans , rivers, lake, forest and dark blue sky which  hold it with universe. We are lucky to get life and breath in this poise space. Life goes on with time which is dynamic. It is true that we need earth but earth too needs us. The relation of earth with us is like a baby in a lap of mother.

Our resilence goes over  the creations and fluctuating events of earth and we tend to accommodate with its twist. All the tremendous and devasting changes which arises in the earth is result of anthropogenic activities except some natural hazards which create havoc effects. Population of earth is reaching summit of 7.2 billion (UN2002), which is beyond the carrying capacity .This sophisticated  space, scientific community, unanimity is arising  complete change in scenario of world day by day. Today children are told story by their grandparents and parents about the snow fall they experienced, streams and river with full water, pleasant sound of birds, green grassland, dense forest and about the dreadful story of danger wild animals,incidents caused by them. Wide changes in the pattern of ecosystem  is only consequence of climate change. So, we can take climate only measureof time. Simply   we describe climate as the atmosphere behaves relatively over a long period of time with significant change in different parameters (temperature , humidity, wind  velocity, rainfall. Precipitation, solar radiation, sun intensity,  atmospheric pressure). Along with natural processes, human activities   are also responsible to change the atmospheric composition.




Climate and whether are somehow similar but are different in context of time. Climatic parameters changes within short time (day to day) variation then it is whether. With the advancement of technology and rapid globalization, people have luxurious life. Anthropogenic luxury, burning fuels, deforestation, motor vehicle exhausts, nuclear weapons manufacturers, industries, factories release out chlorofluorocarbons which are also known as green house gas. Such gases in the atmosphere trap heat from sun that would otherwise reflect back to the space. This  contribute to global warming which results change in climatic pattern. This effect of global warming result from climatic change is burning issue, whole world has keen view towards it’s problematic changes, ecosystem adaptation and its vulnerable effects to human as well as creatures life and their existence. We can see significant changes in physical and biological system which is ultimately directed towards the warming temperature. Chaotic weather patterns, global warming, raise in sea level , decrease in snow peak, threat of glacial lake outburst flood(GOLF), sea storms, intermittent and longer drought events, erratic rainfall are the consequence of climate change .


IPCC (intergovernmental panel on climatic change) is working actively over various countries implementing plans and policies mostly focusing towards developing countries . The marginalized population, subsistence farmers, pastoralists, poor people are mainly suffered by it’s negative impacts. IPCC predicts that by raise of temperature (1.8°c -4°c) 20%-30% of animal and plant species are expected to be at risk of extinction (FAO7b). The horror vehicle  exhausts i.e  a car pollutes fresh air in travelling 1000km which is sufficient for an adult respiration. Deforestation is main cause as forests are the reservoirs of life in earth. Roughly forests cover 30% of world’s land area which play vital role in regulating climate. They store half of world’s terrestial carbon. It is estimated that deforestation is responsible for 20% of world’s co2 emission more than total amount of green house gas. The impact of climate change also leads to chronic poverty and effect on livelihood to the poor sustainable farmers. It’s effect s begin on agricultural crops and livestock regarding their ( dairy  products , meat, wool) and growth performance.


Role of Youth:


Youths are members within (16-40) years age group, energetic. Creative, innovative, enthusiastic, risk  bearers, rational groups. They are responsible members of every family, society, nation. They are advisiors  and facilators for future generation. As climate change is getting   it’s pace this issue strike in their brain for innovative and rational ideas to mitigate it’s effect. Currently youth members are tied together through organization, group and network. Many organizations UNEP, TUNZA, FAO (Food and Agriculture Organization),NYCA(Nepalese Youth For Climate Action) are involving youth in their  strategies policies and coordinating youth through network via social media, blogging sites, internet sites, information technology to meet common objective globally through many participatory programs, conference, seminar, webinar, panel discussion. The conclusive ideas are shared among youths globally. Realizing their responsibility youth activist are arising from different corners of world to wipeout the rooling tears of this planet. So, for justice of climate youth circle should be strong bond for revealing positive change in world community. Along with youth networks, civil society, community groups,allied agencies, should work jointly on climate change  by extending better strategies and improve the biological and physical aspects of earth.


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Bananas cause constipation and cure constipation!!!!

Bananas cause constipation is mainly caused by eating an unripe  bananas. Unripe banana is hard for the body to digest. Chunks of the raw banana will cause blockage in the digestive tract. The blockage is what causes the discomfort associated with constipation.

Does eating banana relieve constipation
Unripe bananas are constipating while ripe bananas help to improve elimination. The reason is unripe bananas contain more tannin. Tannin is a bitter plant polyphenol in the banana latex responsible for its sticky, astringent taste, dry and puckery feeling in the mouth.

100 g of unripe banana contains about 100-250 mg tannins. Tannin acid coagulates proteins in the intestines, which decreases the secretions of the small intestine and inhibits peristalsis. That’s why eating too much unripe banana can cause constipation.

Bananas can cause constipation and bananas can also cure constipation. If you are constipated, then the right choice is ripe bananas and constipation will bid you farewell. This happens because ripe bananas are high in fiber and potassium which help in alleviating constipation. Since the fiber is highly soluble, it helps to push the bowel movement through the intestines. This is because the fiber is easily absorbed by the body. If you are constipated, have ripe bananas, constipation in toddlers can also be cured like this. Ripe bananas contain an enzyme which prevents the fermenting of the banana, as a result it help prevent constipation

The Facts, Bananas  are rich in nutrition  and natural mild laxative. Take two ripe yellow bananas after meals, perhaps for afternoon tea, will help relieve constipation. However, do not combine bananas at meal times .Take only ripe bananas as green ones give constipation. Also avoid over ripe bananas with blackened skin. A ripe banana should have bright yellow skin and its flesh is studded with small black dots.

Reference: nutritionfact guide

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Truth!!!!!! But Bitter!!!

Drops of rain were pattering on me , I was enjoying too much, suddenly my eyes caught a view. I got blurred and correct my spectacle and stare for a while. I wonder with myself what am I doing? Though my pinna are immovable I felt it was catching sound something around. That view and sound compelled me towards it. Ba…..Ba… Ba… (sound of cattle) sound hovered me. I came to know that there was  HE COW. It was laying on the field  and  was not strong enough for ploughing field. Farmer was hurried to finish ploughing field

Seeing the condition of animal farmer was too much tensed, I think at that time his adrenalin level may have reach at peak level or may he have been frightened. I asked  about the number of his animal. He replied that he had only one pair of he cow, some number of goats and poultry. Poor farmer, he was unknown about health of his animal.  What may have happened in his heart? Think  for while…

He was hitting with bamboo stick so harsh that drops of tear were rolling from the eyes of poor animal. HE COW was unable  to stand but he was trying to raise his bulky body. Lines of stick impression was on its flank ,loin and rib regions. Poor farmer’s land was not ploughed even half enough. He was hurried to plant rice but animal had not given him support to complete his task. Landlord had given him too much pressure for plantation.

Being veterinary student, it hit my eyes and started to judge the external appearance of animal. Animal was too much lean and thin, pale eyes ( my be anemic),arched ribs, weak , not smooth hair, seems bottle jaw condition along with diarrhea.  My heart get pinched and scalded. I started asking some questions to the farmer about feeding and maintenance of animal. He told about grasses, it was obvious  because it was rainy season full land had been green. I asked him about treatment and about animal health service. He replied that he is using medicine sometime only. He even did not know about provision of fecal examination in District Livestock office. I came to know he had treated his animal last year by local JTA.

I had prepared my mind for its treatment , but next day of my stay I came to know about  hits death. Poor farmer had to bear huge economic loss. Farmer was unknown about the etiology of disease.

In our country some indigenous race commonly called sarki  in my village eat he cow meat. So immediately they hovered around the carcass of animal and started to dissect. I also observed the internal organs, my eyes caught liver which was pale, enlarged , friable, eyes are anemic, dry skin ,rumen  was carpeted with parasites. So, I tentatively diagnosed that   it’s death due to heavy parasitic infestation. I suggest people not to consume Its meat. They agreed my suggestion.

This is incident which I had faced, but now this had compelled me to analyse this truth fact. In situation whom should I call poor, animal or farmer? Animal in a sense that it had poor health, it had not get single bolus of medicine till its death. It’s owner was expecting work from him despite of his weak health. It is only example there are many animal who are not getting proper care , medicine ,feeding despite of their hard work.

In another hand owner are also untrained, they donot know about proper care and management of animals.  Some how they love animal but donot know about simple schedule of deworming animals, fecal examination, control of external parasites. So,  In my view every programs should catch the problems of grass root level  and they  should be encouraged. We should always promote grass root achiever. So, concerned bodies, NGO’s, INGO’s working for animal welfare, poverty alleviation, women empowerment, sustainable development should direct their vision, plans and actions at first in community. Only seminar, workshop , meetings  are not enough for mitigating farmer’s problems. It is ironical that our experts form plans , strategy in paper but become fail getting them into action. So, formulation of plans most be made infront  of targeted groups. Such community groups should move on through the vision and policy of experts i.e veterinarians, extension workers , concerned personals and should follow up the suggestions and guidance  which might be helpful for mitigating  their problems. So, proper mobilization and awareness program should be induced from grass root level.  There must be co operation  with  media, newspaper, social bodies, public as well as experts.

 Hope such joint effort can bring the new horizons enlighted with golden rays of dawn.  So, one day our farmers also move on  the  path of success and be rich in their knowledge, behavior, skill, vision and obviously economic status. So, animal health will upgrade and they will be more productive  , healthy and  satisfy their owner and consumer as well. This is my hope and aspiration for future.

Nothing is impossible , I am trying my best to do some project work and collecting mass in courtyard of my village and to do simple interaction with my farmer brothers and sisters. I will highly appreciate and thankful to those helping hands who would support me in that vision.

Thank you!!!!

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Do you respect animal emotion????



I am veterinary student ; a strong natural  instinct with animal  and my adorable affection and  love   make me likely to devote in the field of veterinary. Casually emotion includes feelings of love, anger , fear, anxiety, excitement, sadness, happiness, pain, frustration bla bla… Such emotions are not only confined within human but also in  animals. They also have same kind of hunger, thirst ,pain ,temper ,stress as human being do .

Around my sibling period , I used to play with my pets . Even though dog and cat quarrel each other but they used to  give me company a lot.   I used to stare their act as a vague source  of recreation. Wow! dangling act on  cow ‘s tail recalls me  my stubborn activities that  used to  imply pressure on my guardian for the restriction on my behaviour

. I used to call them by my native language and my naughty TOMMY always used to roam ,lean and lick on me. My acceptance  for their acts endevour me that I really have positive feeling of love on them. My wilderness was far from me because of their friendly and fabulous act. With  the entrance of new horizons  my sibling period also passed away  but all naughty acts have been stored safely in my cranium which will be never deleted. Even when my cranium memory  fulls  ,I will select  my childhood memories and never let them go away from my life. The same memories  which I shared with my pets compells to think and it hunts my brain about zoonotic diseases. I want to give my greatest feeling of gratitude towards god having such grace and favour on me that protected me from  possibility of of getting zoonotic diseases. Now only I got to realize about this fact  as I am studing it in my course.


Zoonotic diseases refers any disease or infection that is naturally transmissible from vertebrate animals to humans and viceversa according to PAHO publication. It is common to man and animal both.Over 200 diseases  have been described as zoonotic diseases. Such diseases have  different  etiology. These diseases are caused by various pathogens including  bacteria, virus, parasites ,fungi. These can be classified on the basis of type  of causative agents,,which are as follows:

  1. Bacterial

Salmonellosis, anthrax, shigellosis, tularaemia

  1. Viral

Rabies ,(as estimated  number of 55000 person  mainly children, die of these diseases in world) .It also includes Avain Influenza,haemmoragic fever.

  1. Parasitic

Cysticercosis/ Taeniasis, trematodosis, echinococuosis, hydatidosis, toxoplasmosis and  trichinellosis.

  1. Fungal

Dermatophytoses, sporotrichosis


Zoonoses has high significant on public health but it has been negeleted  and are not priotized by health systems of national and international level. I think it is due to negligence on animal health sector. plans , programs and strategies  are always  set up for public health.  Most of the new extension and communications programs are oriented for human health. Friends is it fair??? Why always preference is given for only human health. Animal health is human health , these are related with each other.  It is necessary to give equal concern for animal and human for the prevention of zoonotic diseases and to protect world from their havoc pandemic form. Recently outbreak news of birdflu   has centered health system towards it, there is threaten of mutation in virus .

As animal health determines the  world health, but people donot care about them. Its ironical that in our country people worship cow as god but they do not hegitate  milking all milk even not lefting single teat for calf.  Farmers expect lots of liters of milk but there is no provision for   proper feeding, housing, health service management. They only depend on dry   rice straw, stubborn ,crops by product, etc which meets minimum requirement of feed for livestock. Also In such pittyful condition   cow release oxytocin for it’s   baby. Even its baby donot get single drop of milk   to quiet his pangs. Why we people do such discrimination on animal young ones? People do such  misbehave on productive animals then what we expect even on other unproductive animals.

 I have seen innumerous evidences of misbehave on animals by  people . In   the field while ploughing   even diseased animal are bitten aggressively on their flank ,loin ,rib regions. In  such conditions also they are compelled to do such hard job. They donot get single dose of bolus  to get  rid out of disease. Even the animal health worker  and veterinarian , who devote  their whole life in serving animals also handle animals irrationally  during treatment. Illegal poaching and trading of wildlife are also increasing day by day. Some of   teenager guys  ride bike  so recklessly  that they  take life of innocent animal. Most of the people of developing country like Nepal are unknown about animal right. Here in some cases animals are mistreated by veterinarian   unknownly which might be against Animal Right thus can be taken as most  irony. In developed countries   owner can case to the veterinarian for their any mistakes and jobs during treatment process, which can arise big issue. So , it is necessary to raise awareness about animal health and animal right among people. So  that  people would be conscious about the proper feeding, housing, vaccination and other health services for animals.


  Every animal has sentience through they experience the world   by feelings and sensation. Nature has adorn them with weapons   to tackle the world. So we human should respect the animal emotions because they are also creation of god and   they have important role in balancing ecosystem.


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Meat Consumption ,supply and its nutrient value in the context of Nepal



I am a neo blogger. I was really interested to write about livestock, which is considered as backbone of national economy of developing country like Nepal. People rear livestock in their subsistence level where they get proper diet and money as well. Food habit of people categorized into the veg and non Veg. Most of Non  veg  prefer to have meat, they direct their nose towards smell of cooked meat. Many people secrete saliva phoning or seeing roast, spicy fried chicken, lobster tail. People love having meat to satisfy their pangs and quiet their hunger. Various types of meat and meat products are found in market. i.e , sausages (mostly dry sausages are popular),meat pies, spring rolls, burgers, pizzas, sekuwa, momos.  All these items are popular among people.

Generally meat is defined as the muscle of slaughter animals. In Nepal buffalo accounts 60% total consumption, mutton 21%,pigs 7%,poultry 6%.The meat of many wild animals are also popular among people known as game meat.

Though our country is considered as world of festivals, so many animals are required for sacrifice. During festivals most of people of all age groups enjoy having different items of meat. The demand of meat is so high that after the immediate slaughter of animal, meat is marketed and consumed within a few hours by consumer. When consumer’s income increases probably there is highest demand of meat and meat products. Dashain which is greatest festival people get double salary from their job. From the transition zone between the hill and terai, goats are imported, where they tend to move southwards, to market. They are moved on hoof relatively for the short distance and are packed inside trucks  for a long distance. So far, animals for meat are also imported from India and china. Mostly they are imported in large number during the month of July to October.

Nepal is also being developed in field  of tourism ,so number of hotels and restaurants are also increasing. There is also high demand of meat  from hotels, restaurants(catering trade) ,supermarket etc.

Mostly goat, sheep, buffalo, pig, poultry are reared for meat purpose which are sold for slaughter. Here we see most of buffaloes i.e older one no longer required for milk production ,older  draught animals which are past their prime. Such animals are so imported for specifically for slaughter.

Precautions taken during transportation:

1. Journey can be shortened as possible.

2. For a long journey animals should be accompanied by opportunities to feed and water to the animals.

3. Load animals without any physical abuse.

4. Always animas should be delivered during night time.

Livestock resource in Nepal

Livestock number  estimated by the Department of Agricultural statistics to be shown in table below (2011/2012)

Cattle-  72,44,944

Buffalo- 51,33,139

Goat –   95,12,958

Sheep- 89,267

Pig –   11,37,489


Meat production(2011/2012)

Poultry              40,346MT

Pig                      18,277 MT

Goat                   53,956 MT

Sheep                 2,720

Buffalo              172414 MT

There is an increasing demand for meat, which suggest that current levels of consumption could now be 8.7 Kg per person each year. This is still less than 14 kg generally considered necessary for a balanced diet, so it is difficult to satisfy without improvement in production.

Nutritive Value of meat

Though, human beings are omnivorous, they consume or eat meat. To meet the food requirements of increased population, the food of animal origin have emerged as an alternative source of energy. Raw meat contain 18-20% protein, i.e it is high source protein. Other than protein it is also composed of carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. A 100 gm of cooked meat can supply 25-30g of 56g recommended daily protein which 45-55% RDA. It also contains all essential aminoacids, amins, amides, NPN, creatinine etc which are essential for the protein synthesis. Meat is also excellent source of vitamin B complex group i.e thiamin, riboflavin and niacin are present in highest amount. Minerals like Fe is present which is required for haemoglobin, myoglobin formation. Ca is present in high amount in bones. As liver is principle storage site for glycogen and CHO is stored in high amount.

 Some risk factors related to meat

Despite being  rich in nutrition, there are some risk factors which directly  or indirectly hampers the health of consumers. About 99% of spoilage of meat is caused by different species of bacteria. Due to the presence of blood, bacteria get suitable media, so loads of bacteria grow within a short duration. Different bacteria such as Salmonella, shigella, E-coli, klebsiella, staphylococcus, clostridium causes food poisioning. Such zoonoses can be contracted due to improper handling, processing, packageing  and transportation.

Measures we can follow for consumption of healthy meat:

1. Slaughtering, dressing, cutting should be clean without any contamination.

2 .To prolong shelf life and to maintain optimum qualitative properties the meat products  most be processed or can be stored in refrigerator.

3 .Always discard offal and parasite infected carcass.

4. Never consume raw  and improperly cooked meat.

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